Research papers on car accidents

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Many people take trips after having too much to drink and manage to get home. Often they depend on police reports, which can be reliable for some things, like what kind of car is involved or the extent of injuries. But other factors — like distractions — may not exist in police reports. A driver is unlikely, for one, to tell an officer that he was using a cellphone, especially if he thinks it will increase his liability. They would rather put some money for roads as opposed to investing in something as unsexy as maintaining a good crash database.

The program will gather raw data from about 1, cars equipped with minicameras, motion-detection sensors and other devices to monitor cars and their drivers. The program expands a pilot study done at Virginia Tech University.

Road traffic incidents in Uganda: a systematic review of a five-year trend

The Virginia study came to some preliminary conclusions:. Care of injuries after a crash has occurred is extremely time-sensitive: delays of minutes can make the difference between life and death. Improving post-crash care requires ensuring access to timely prehospital care, and improving the quality of both prehospital and hospital care, such as through specialist training programmes.

If traffic laws on drink-driving, seat-belt wearing, speed limits, helmets, and child restraints are not enforced, they cannot bring about the expected reduction in road traffic fatalities and injuries related to specific behaviours.

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Thus, if traffic laws are not enforced or are perceived as not being enforced it is likely they will not be complied with and therefore will have very little chance of influencing behaviour. Effective enforcement includes establishing, regularly updating, and enforcing laws at the national, municipal, and local levels that address the above mentioned risk factors. It includes also the definition of appropriate penalties.

Road traffic injuries can be prevented. Governments need to take action to address road safety in a holistic manner. This requires involvement from multiple sectors such as transport, police, health, education, and actions that address the safety of roads, vehicles, and road users. Effective interventions include designing safer infrastructure and incorporating road safety features into land-use and transport planning, improving the safety features of vehicles, improving post-crash care for victims of road crashes, setting and enforcing laws relating to key risks, and raising public awareness.

WHO works across the spectrum in countries, in a multisectoral manner and in partnership with national and international stakeholders from a variety of sectors. Its objective is to support Member States in road safety policy planning, implementation and evaluation. In addition, WHO collaborates with partners to provide technical support to countries. In , WHO released Save LIVES a road safety technical package which synthesizes evidence-based measures that can significantly reduce road traffic fatalities and injuries.

Save LIVES: a road safety technical package focuses on S peed management, L eadership, I nfrastructure design and improvement, V ehicle safety standards, E nforcement of traffic laws and post-crash Survival. The package prioritizes 6 strategies and 22 interventions addressing the risk factors highlighted above, and provides guidance to Member States on their implementation to save lives and meet the road safety target of halving the global number of deaths and injuries from road traffic crashes by WHO is the lead agency — in collaboration with the United Nations regional commissions — for road safety within the UN system.

Proclaimed through a UN General Assembly resolution in , the Decade of Action was launched in May in over countries, with the aim of saving millions of lives by implementing the Global Plan for the Decade of Acton. WHO also plays a key role in guiding global efforts by continuing to advocate for road safety at the highest political levels; compiling and disseminating good practices in prevention, data collection and trauma care; sharing information with the public on risks and how to reduce these risks; and drawing attention to the need for increased funding.

How to Tell Who Is at Fault in a Car Accident

WHO's Global status report on road safety presents information on road safety from countries. This report is the fourth in a series and provides an overview of the road safety situation globally. The global status reports are the official tool for monitoring the Decade of Action.

Who is at risk?

Road traffic injuries 7 December It can fully point out the shortcomings of the system, and can reflect the fault probability calculation system, which can be used to evaluate the components of each module in the fault tree [4]. The fundamental purpose of fault tree construction is to describe the state or environment of accident when it is built.

Fatal single vehicle crashes study: Summary report

For the establishment of car accident fault tree at intersection, we must have a comprehensive understanding of the system to be analyzed, including people, cars, roads and environment. The main contents are as follows:. Take the accident at a crossroad as the top event. Sensing system: collecting information from environment and vehicle. Understanding system: correctly understanding information from its own perception system.

Decision system: Based on the understanding of traffic condition, maintain the specific operation condition of vehicle. Action system: make a subjective decision [6]. Besides, in the research of this chapter, the perception system and understanding system are brought into the decision system to simplify the analysis [7]. The decision system is redefined as the ability of drivers to perceive, understand and make the right decisions.

If neither is available on your word processor, please use the font closest in appearance to Times. Avoid using bit-mapped fonts if possible. True-Type 1 or Open Type fonts are preferred. Please embed symbol fonts, as well, for math, etc. The misoperation of the car is usually caused by the lack of experience of the driver or unfamiliarity with the driving car. In the qualitative analysis of the fault tree model of the car accident at the intersection, the two methods of minimum cut set and structural importance are used to analyze the model. The so-called minimum cut set is a set of basic events that can cause the minimum of events on top of the top, that is to say, if any basic event does not occur in the cut centralization, the top event will not occur. The minimum cut set can also represent the risk of the system.

How many minimum cut sets are included in the fault tree, and there are several possibilities for the top event to happen. If the minimum cut set in the fault tree is more, the more the path of the system will happen, the more dangerous the will be. To sum up, the minimum cut set of the fault tree is designed to analyze the combination of the basic events that cause the top events, that is, to find the cause of the event on the top Table 1.

Figure 1. Top-level fault tree. Figure 2. Failure due to decision sub-tree. Figure 3. Failure due to operation sub-tree. Figure 4. Failure due to mental sub-tree.


Figure 5. Failure due to physical sub-tree. Table 1. Minimal cut sets. Structural importance degree refers to the degree of probability that a basic event does not take account of the occurrence of basic events.